Thursday, January 6, 2011
Food Production: SOUP NOTES
Soups are a liquid food that is derived from meat, fish, poultry, and Vegetables. Soups are most often served at the beginning of a meal or as the main course for lunch or a snack. The term soupe originally referred to the slice of bread upon which the contents of a cooking pot (potage) were poured.
Classification of soups:
When referring to soups, it is important to know that all soups will fall into three broad categories.
1. Thin – These are unthickened soups that may or may not contain other ingredients such as vegetables or meats. Some examples are:
Broth or Bullion; Vegetable Soups (some containing meat); Consommé
2. Thick – Any soup that is thickened will fall into this category; the thickening can come from any of various sources. Some examples are:
Cream Soups; Purée Soups (sometimes referred to as potage); Bisques; Chowders; Potage
3. Specialty – Soups that do not fit neatly into the above categories. Most specialty soups will have similarities like that they are
thick or thin. Types of specialty soups include all cold soups, national or regional soups, and some low fat soups.
Some examples are: Regional Soups; National Soups
1) Thin soup or clear soups These soups are all based on a clear, unthickened broth or stock. They may be served plain or garnished with a variety of vegetables and meats
A. Broth and Bouillon are two terms used in many different ways, but in general they both refer to simple, clear soups without solid ingredients.
B. Vegetable soup is clear, seasoned stock or broth with the addition of one or more vegetables and sometimes meat or poultry products and starches.
C. Consommé is a rich, flavoured stock or broth that has been clarified to make it perfectly clear and transparent.
2) Thick soups: Thick soups are opaque rather than transparent. They are thickened either by adding a thickening agent such as roux, or by pureeing one or m ore of their ingredients to provide a heavier consistency.
A. Cream soups are soups that are thickened with roux, beurre manié, liaison, or other added thickening agents and has all the addition of milk / cream. Cream soups are usually named after their major ingredient, such as cream of tomato, cream of broccoli.
B. Purees are soups that are naturally thickened by pureeing one or more of their ingredients. They may be made with dry legumes or from fresh starchy vegetables. Purees may or may not contain cream.
C. Bisques are thickened soups made from shell fish. They are usually prepared like cream soups and are almost always finished with cream.
D. Chowders are American soups made from fish, shellfish or vegetables. They usually contain milk and potatoes.
E. Velouté is made with a Blond Roux and flavoured stock, prepared in the same way as a Velouté sauce and Liaison is added to finish. A Liaison is Egg Yolks and Double Cream
3) Specialty soups: Some of the international soups
A. Minestrone Italy
B. Green turtle soup England
C. French onion soup France
D. Cock-a-leekie Scotland
E. Mulligatawny India
F. Gazpacho Spain
G. Paprika Hungry
H. Manhattan Clam Chowder America
I. Scotch broth Scotland
J. Camaro brazil
4) Cold soups are sometimes considered specialty soups, and in fact some of them are. But many other popular cold soups, such as jellied consommé, cold cream of cucumber soups are simply cold versions of basic clear and thick soups..
COMMONLY USED GARNISHES FOR SOUPS:
Soup garnishes may be divided into three groups.
1. Garnishes in the soup.
Major ingredients, such as the vegetables in clear vegetable soup, are often considered garnishes. This group of garnishes also includes meats, poultry, seafood, pasta products, and grains such as barley or rice. They are treated as part of the preparation or recipe itself, not as something added on.
Consommés are generally named after their garnish, such as consommé brunoise, which contains vegetables cut into brunoise shape.
Vegetable cream soups are usually garnished with carefully cut pieces of the vegetable from which they are made.
Clear soups are generally served without toppings to let the attractiveness of the clear broth and the carefully cut vegetables speak for themselves. Occasional exceptions are toppings of chopped parsley or chives. Thick soups, especially those that are all one color, are often decorated with a topping. Toppings should be placed on the soup just before service so they won’t sink or lose their fresh appearance. Their flavors must be appropriate to the soup. Do not overdo soup toppings. The food should be attractive in itself. Topping suggestions for thick soups:
Croutons Dices or other shapes made from bread, toast, pastry.
Profitroles Prepared from chou paste. They are miniature cream puffs which may be filled or used plain.
Cereals Rice or barley.
Cheese Cheese balls, or grated Parmesan served with croutons on one side.
Cream Unsweetened whipped cream or sour cream.
Meats Usually small dices or juliennes.
Poultry Same as meat.
Seafood Diced or flaked. Large enough pieces distinguishable.
Pastas Noodles, spaghetti, other pasta products such as star letters, cornets, etc.
Vegetables Cut in various sizes, shapes-juliennes, round slices, dices of spring vegetables.
Fresh herbs (parsley, chives), chopped
Fried herbs, such as parsley, sage, chervil, celery leaves, leek julienne
American soups are traditionally served with crackers. In addition to the usual saltines, other suggestions for crisp accompaniments are:
Profiteroles (tiny unsweetened cream-puff shells)